A Bacia do Ucaiali


  • José Cezar de Magalhães


Ucayali, Rio - Peru, Geografia regional


            The author shows the remarkable likeness between the peruvian amazonic plain irregularities and those in Brazilian territory, as to physical landscape. However, he brings out the way they are diversely called in Peru. The physical, the climatologic, the hidrologic, the phytologic aspects are analyzed and the soil too. Their influences on the population of the amazon river basin are showed by the author. The limit between the amazonic plain and the Andes is also showed because of the imp1essive transformations which take place in the landscape, owing to rising plain to the Andes.

            The author asserts that the basin is situated in the most central part of the north in the continent, therefore it is secluded either from the Atlantic or the Pacific. The peruvian indweller has to travel over 800 kilometers along a new road across de Andes to arrive at the Pacific and more than 3 000 kilometers to reach the Atlantic by fluvial way.

            On reference to population, the author tells how the physical obstacles delaied the settlement and p1aises the Church Missionary Action in the village establishments and the catechesis of the indians.

            Iquitos was the first important city founded in the peruvian amazonic region in the nineteenth century. Today this prosperous city has several outstanding activities, whose the commercial market is one. There is also a new large harbor where arrive the international shipping. The city is connected to Ucaiali, Pucalpa, Atalaia and the cities of the amazonic region (Brazil) through fluvial and air ways.

            Professor IRIO BARBOSA DA COSTA, one of the collaborators, declared that the extractive toil prevails in the basin's economic activities. He prizes the extractive timber and rubber work, whose products are carried to the pe1uvian littoral.

            The erosion and the overflowing make difficult the agriculture and damage the rearing of the cattle, in the Ucaialan basin. Nevertheless, the basin will grow in importance on account of the oil exploration in the wells of "Ganso Azul", along the Pachitea River, from where it is exported to the refinery of Manaus, in Brazil.

            Referring to transportation means, the author informs that are well distributed, but they reach that region less times than they should do. This insufficiency affects the basin development.

            Finally, he concludes that the peruvian will be still able to obtain great advantages in the Ucaiali basin and the t1ade between Brazil and Peru must be more intensive mainly in regard to the profit of the oil.