A Área rural do Distrito Federal brasileiro


  • Raymond Pebayle


Distrito Federal - Brasil, Brasília - DF, Geografia agrícola, Geografia rural, Agricultura


After 1956 the area around Brasilia has passed by a series of transformations in the rural life, as consequence of the establishment of the new Capital.

The A. analyses the subject of the present work under two aspects: the behavior of a ruled rural area and the transformations occurred in a spontaneous rural area.

In the first part he studies the action of the "Companhia Urbanizadora da Nova Capital (NOVACAP)(1), responsible by land expropriation and redistribution to the farmers, by means of grants, putting in practice a real agrarian reform in an area where the agriculture wasn't planted yet.

The soil and vegetation coverage aspects are pointed out here considering certain physiographic factors which has determined a typical land coverage named "cerrado"(2), as well as the factors related to problems of means of communication and land appropriation. Based on these last factors the A. distinguishes four large groups of rural nuclei:

- roceiros (3) nuclei, relatively remote and peopled by farmers without tenancy title;

- farmers and cattle raisers nuclei, comprising the farthest lands, with larger size lots, that only recently were organized;

- Vargem Bonita and Taguatinga horticulturist nuclei, favored by neighborhood of the urban area and consequently of the markets.

- citadinos-chacareiros(4) nuclemts, contituted by townsmen who hold small tracts of land outside town, as country houses or even small ranches, where they manage it not only with leisure purposes, but with trading intention, due to the fact of the nearness of a great market.

The spontaneous rural area with a diversified pattern of tenure and land use, where is found among other two important types:

- Cattle raising traditional fazendas (5), which passed by transformations, having improved its cattle-breeding system.

- Small rural invaders, represented by those who, both in the past, as nowadays, have taken possession of land, in the vanguard of pioneer fronts, occupying, without authorization, chiefly the land of NOVACAP.

As conclusion one can say that, pertaining to any of those forms, the land exploiter of Distrito Federal has adapted, with considerable quickness, to the economic and agrarian local conditions, remembering what have occurred in certain regions of the southeast country.


1 - Town planning Company

2 - Kind of brushwood of stunted vegetation

3 - Small tiller who uses primitive systems of planting

4 - Citydweller who possess a country house

5 - Cattle ranch in Brazilian way