Tipologia da agricultura : questões metodológicas e problemas de aplicação ao Estado de São Paulo


  • José Alexandre Felizola Diniz
  • Antonio Olivio Ceron


São Paulo - Estado, Produtividade agrícola, Agricultura, Geografia econômica, Geografia agrícola


The present paper, of mainly methodological character, is originated from experiences of adaptations that the Agricultural Comission of Typology, of the International Geographical Union has suggested, with regard to two important region of São Paulo State - the Peripheric Depression and the Western Plateau.

The study is divided into three parts: in the first is made a summary of the IGU' suggestions, which serves as introduction to the other parts. In the second, the matter is treated in specific terms, discussing all the problems concerning methodological adaptations to Brazil, as well the solution found to express the great part of typological characteristics, wich remains determined like that:

1) Social Characteristics

1.1 - Type of land properties determined by the percentage of occupied area

1.2 - Exploitation system, given by the percentage of establishments in relation to the

occupied area, with direct or indirect valorization;

1.3 - Kind of work, expressed by the relation between home workers and land wage-earners,

in the total of occupied personnel;

1.4 - Dimensional categories of establishments and land distribution, analyzed by Lorenz's

Curve and taken axis points as limit of categories.

2) Functional Characteristics (organization and techniques)

2.1 - Land organization, analyzed with base on land use mapping made with aerophotographic

mosaics in the scale o f 1:25.000, as well by percentage of the are a utilized

by cultures, pastures and woods;

2.2 - Practical measures seen through the study of agricultural systems and the techniques

employed, in terms of field work samples.

2.3 - Agricultural density, taken by a rate which totalize the number of farm tractors,

plows and occupied personnel, in relation to the "municipio" * area. If we take

the area as S, the number of tractors T, the number of plows A, and P the occupied

personnel., the agricultural density is given by the formula:

d = 40.T:8.A:P/S


3.3 - Production trade, analyzed with base on models.

To the combination of the typological characteristics some method have been testified as. the Cluster Analysis and the Factor Analysis.

The third part of the work presents some suggestions and specific techniques employed in the quantitative analysis of some elements of the characteristics:

1 - Maximum area calculations of establishments valorized exclusively by home work;

2 - Land distribution and its classification;

3 - Analysis of combined productivity in relation to a model of maximum productivity;

4 - Orientation of agriculture, methodological suggestions;

5 - Trade production evaluation based on models;

6 - Calculation of the specialization of agriculture by the methods of maximum length.