O planejamento regional – Suas Características e particularidades: Ensinamentos decorrentes de experiências estrangeiras


  • Arthur Cezar Reis


Amazônia;, Geografia Política;, Geografia Econômica.


Based in the plan 1 - the world planning 2 - Regional planning :n Brazil - 3 the economic plan of economic appreciation of Amazonia, the author says planning is the better way to discipline the growth and the recovering of underdeveloped regions. Being planned for the future it needs the examination of past and present conditions, in order to avoid mistakes and the experience may succeed.

            Although it is characterized as a subject, coordination and control, planning is a necessity nowadays and settles down a governmental politic or administrative or then bring success to private enterprises In what concerns the estate it stresses certain problems or certains regions: administrative planning, economic, politic, municipal and regional. Volta Redonda which as a state enterprise obeyed the rules of planning and the oil refinery and the juta factory installed In Manaus, were the result of private planning.

            Regarding the considerable sums of money to be invested, exigencies and precautions in planning technics must be taken in consideration, especially in the appreciation of a region for as economic plans aiming the social collectivizes have to be flexible in order to be adjusted to the constant social variation of nowadays.

            Next Dr Ferreira Reis presents several regional plannings which are connected to what French call the "mise-en-valeur'' of a region that was employed in his vast colonial empire in the XIX and XX centuries So he characterizes the British planning, the one of Congo Belga, the Monet plan for France and French Union, the :me of Suriname, and also examines the Tennessee valley planning.

            Under the title: Regional Planning in Brazil; Peculiarities; Difficulties of the Brazilian case; the experiences made and its teachings - the author analysis various experiences made in Brazil Regarding the physical, economical, social and cultural differences of certain areas of the country, some of them were able to be developed but other ones, no. So solutions aiming to vitalize underdeveloped regions that is the planning of a recovering politic was under take by Federal Government.

            This interference of the Federal Government is felt in all great problems which losing its local character become national ones Some of them were old ones as the rubber defense, the work against the drought, the S. Francisco River, Rio Doce and Paraná Basin.

            Commenting these undertakings, the first one dated from 1912, the last ones originated from constitutional dispositions of the Charter of 1946, the author ends this part and begins a third one conce1ned to the plan of Economic Appreciation of Amazonia.

            Describing the physical, human and economical characteristics of Amazonia as well as its historical evolution where for the first. time in Brazil regional planning was tried, although not completed, the author arrives to the time of the rubber rush in 1870, whose splendor is given by the two capitals of the region Belém and Manaus. It was then that voices were heard in order to suggest the necessary means to give stability to the local society. Other voices foresee, regarding the undeveloped technics used and the market demands, the appealing of the synthetic rubber.

            With the ruin provoked by the oriental rubber concurrence life in Amazonia retroceded and in order to restore its life recognition and surveys of the area resources and researches about the region possibilities were made, including the participation of a North-American-Brazilian Comission Little by little this underdeveloped area began to rise upon the national conscience and isolated measures were taken as the creation of the three Federal Territories – Amapá, Guaporé and Rio Branco, the rescission of the company which explored the services of the interior navigation and those of the port of Pará, the foundation of the Special Service of Public Health and the Rubber Bank, today called Banco de Crédito da Amazonia, the two last ones. With North - American financial and technical cooperation. By the time of the World War the markets increased its necessity of rubber but the rubber trees restauration did not work as it was expected.

            It was then that it was elaborated, based in the Constitution of 1946 (art 99) the "appreciation plan of Amazonia, whose resources applied by Federal Government should correspond to 3% from the Union appropriation and equal sum from the municipalities and territories of that region.

            The 1806 law from January, 6, 1953, voted by Congress, created the "Supelintendência do Plano de Valorizacão Econômica da Amazônia" and scheduled the operations to be planned. The total utilization of the region resources was its aim and also to set up a demographic, economical, commercial and banking politic.

            A planning commission (15 members, 6 from which specialists from the Government free choice) should elaborate an emergency program and after that a quinquennial plan. But the magnetization of the technical staff required and the routine services make difficult the organization of such plan which would include the states of Pará and Amazonas, the Federal Territories of Acre, Amapá, Guaporé, and Rio Branco and also part from the state of Mato Grosso, north 16° parallel, from Goiás, North 13° parallel and from Maranhão, west 44° meridian, making a total of 5.030 109 km2 - two thirds of the country with a population of 3 549 389 inhabitants.

            The "Plano de Valorização Econômica da Amazonia must be faced as a political work aiming the territorial integration, economical and social from Amazonia in the national Unity, having as a purpose the occupation and development of Amazonia as a whole. Nevertheless, the lack of informations from the local entities exceptionally those which could provide resources prejudiced the program execution. In spite of that the emergency program was elaborated the investments applied in the following: 1 Agricultural and little Development; 2 - Transportation, Communications and Energy; 3 Cultural Development; 4 - Natural Resources; 5 – Healt (Cr$ 330 000 000,00).

            Once approved the Emergency Program, the Planning Commission began to think about the Quadrennial Plan

            The preliminary planning to be revised annually set tile following points: a) - to assure the territorial occupation of Amazonia in a Brazilian sense; b) - establish an economically progressive and steady society which by its own resources could provide its social duties: c) develop Amazonia economy in a similar and complementary sense of the Brazilian one.

            Concluding the author examines: first, the recovering of Amazonia population problem, showing the areas where this population could settle, areas chosen by economical and political criterion where the kind of activity was in the dependence of natural resources from each zone, the character of population and the aiming wished in the choice of the zones forming a total of 28.

            He analyses after, the agriculture problem in Amazonia calling attention to an assistance system including credit planned by the "Valorização" and by animal origin nourishment.

            Refering to natural resources, the prog1am includes - rubber and "babaçu" - The utilization of the vegetal and mineral raw material by its transformation in industrial products was also thought of About transportation the plan looks for the creation of an interim - fluvial transportation system and highway connection from Amazonia to the South and North-East. Nevertheless the little knowing of the region prevented the development of the work, and researches are meded which are submitted to the "Instituto de Pesquisas da Amazonia", a FAO, to the "Technical Assistance" of ONU and to the "Instituto Agronomic do Norte". These institutions have made studies on the heveaculture, forest identification and researches for the settlement of colonies. The total of the investments for the quinquennial reaches 8 millions of cruzeiros. By the Decree 35.142 from March, 4, 1954, the application of these resources must me made by agreements with official institutions and private or by contracts with technical and moral suitable films.

            The author ends his paper showing economical and financial data which have influence in the Economy of Amazonia.