Urbanização e Industrialização na Orla Oriental da Baía de Guanabara


  • Pedro Geiger


Baia de Guanabara;, São Gonçalo;, Niterói;, Localização das indústrias;, Urbanização;, Geografia Física;, Geografia Urbana.


In this work the author studies the transformation of old rural areas situated in the oriental site of Guanabara Bay, by an urbanization and industrialization process which has a close relation to the neighboring large city of Rio de Janeiro.

            The city of Rio de Janeiro lies on the oriental side of Guanabara Bay; its progress being continued to the location and the geographical conditions of the Guanabara Bay area, which is suitable for a sea-trade This progress has reflected to the opposite site of said bay.

            In the XVIII century, Rio de Janeiro was the center of trade for São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Campos.

            The "General Highway" serving Campos, started at São Gonçalo situated 10 Km north of Niterói which lies on the oriental site of Guanabara Bay Niterói was another small town right in front of Rio de Janeiro at the entrance of the Bay São Gonçalo was situated in an important rural zone, where many sugar and brandy plants were established; the "General Highway" passing by Niterói and or the small harbors situated on the bank of the Bay further in, near by São Gonçalo, the highway started there, as it was necessary to go around the mountain block of Niterói situated between the shore, and the plain East of the Guanabara Bay both neck. Later reaiway form Niterói to the interior followed the same track.

            The substitution of the sugar plantation diversified agriculture on the oriental side of the Guanabara Bay during the early XIX century brought up sugar economic problems and indicated the influence of the constant development of the Rio de Janeiro City Later when the industrialization of Brazil and its Capital began some companies were established at the oriental side of Guanabara, for example. The Mauá Naval docks at Ponta d'Areia. The important textile industry at Barretos presently a borough of Niterói, was established in 1893 on an old form.

            The industrial progress was intensified mainly after 1940 reflecting the general tendency of the country. The industrial move took place in a part of the territory of tradition or of favorable geographic conditions; these two aspects are found at the oriental site of Guanabara. This boroughs of the northern area of Niterói because industrial areas Stretch up to São Gonçalo.

           An agricultural renascence which took place in this region since the first world war did block the industrial development, in spite of the draw backs of the II world war.

            As new plants were established at São Gonçalo plantations desapeared giving place to urban style lots.

            A great many firms are established Niterói, but they are of small size working along the consumption line.

            Today São Gonçalo is an industrial suburb where basic industries (cement, metallurgical, chemical) are located there are also some residential suburbs for the middle class or population and for workers Niterói as well as São Gonçalo grow proportionally to the function of residential areas for people working in Rio de Janeiro.

            The most important graphic conditions for the industrialization of the oriental site of Guanabara area are:

            The neighborhood to the Rio de Janeiro market; the existence of certain raw materials that explain the establishment of industries like ceramics, cement plants, sardines, glass-works; the neighboring of a esrbor which time easier the transport of the important raw material, such as fuel as well as the exported ones.

            The numerous labor of the farms and ranches; the development of electric power supply.

            The situation of the industry at the setentrional site of Niterói and of the town of São Gonçalo is closely related to the old highway and railways; with lots all low cost and available working hands; with the. position of the Port of Niterói; to the existence of some more important rivers in the plains north of the mountain block of Niterói; to the navigable channels of the coast, to the existence of the old street car rails which stretched up to the ex-rural area and to the electric power lines from the Serra do Mar etc.

            As to the organization of the urban population there is a great resemblance in some aspects to what occurs on the other site of the bay where the influence of the geographic conditions are noted: separation in burroughs isolated by the mountains; richer burroughs in the south zone close to the sandy beaches, and poor burroughs are industrial areas further in, close to the muddy beaches; urbanization along the old tracks of penetration and the urban population clusters stretching itself around the mountain the slopes of which constitute a limit to the expansion of the towns, fusion of Niterói with São Gonçalo; enlargement of the urban population up north, further in the bay, where the hills and plains cover its banks, following the mountain block; A bigger dispersion of habitation in São Gonçalo by the influence of the great allotments of large farms in this more setentrional area.

            The conclusion were the following:

            1) the region has been developed under the influence of the general conditions of the country and particular of the neighboring of Rio de Janeiro;

            2) The urbanization development started from Niterói and covered little, not well organized locations of the São Gonçalo town, surrounded by large and small properties, in a crawdad area Modern industry was introduced, preceding in some areas the urbanization;

            3) Urban expansion was great in territorial extension with scarce habitations, due to the real estate speculation of the old large properties;

            4) The Niterói - São Gonçalo co-urbanization is a fact, but, certain areas of São Gonçalo are in a transition state from rural to urban;

            5) In this work it was not possible to determine greater influences of the climate on the industrialization and urbanization process of this area.