A Geografia no curso secundário


  • Jorge Zarur


Professor Jorge Zarur, member of the D. C .. studies in the present work the teaching of Geography in the Secondary course.

            In the first part, "The teaching o f geography and its objetive In the secondary course", the author starts by establishing the conception of Geography, the evolution of teaching In ancient times, In the middle ages, in the Renaissance and in modern times, endeavouring to show how educators and teachers of renown used to impart the knowledge of this discipline.   While studying the objective of the teaching of geography In the secondary course he presents the opinion of various authors and reaches the conclusion that geography In the secondary course has for its aim establishing the interdependence between the Earth and Man, while furnishing the student the knowledge of the place where he lives and of the factors of inter-relation of the phenomena revealing to him the picture of the geographic reality wherein he ls going to exert his activities.

            After demonstrating these objectives he makes a comparative study of the teaching of geography in the U. S. A., England, France, Germany and Brazil.

            Referring to the teaching of geography In Brazil the author establishes a parallel between the ancient and modern methods adopted in the secondary course, the programs of which he has studied since the time of the second Brazilian Empire In an historical outline, where he points out the main objectives of this discipline in the part concerning our Mothercountry, which can function as an element to lntensify and, perhaps, even to create the highest civic sentiment.

            In the second part, entitled "Technical , Aspects of the Teaching of Geography in the Secondary Cours", Professor J. Zarur first makes a study of the material organization of the teaching of geography indicating the proper material and the advantage to be obtained from its frequent use.

            When referring to excursions he says that they should not be of a tourist character, but should be of interest only in that which ls common and typical In the region.

            Next he deals with socialized teaching In geography, showing that geography is the discipline which serves best for this modality of teaching.

            He goes on to submit the most convenient process of checking what has been learnt, favouring the use of tests with the old system of composition and essays.

            He ends his work by presenting various conclusions which embody his own particular way of facing the teaching of geography in the secondary course as to its needs and main objetives. For those interested In the subject he gives a long and specialized bibliography referring to the teaching of geografy.