A explotação da borracha na região dos formadores dos rios Arinos e Teles Pires (Norte de Mato Grosso)


  • Marília Gosling Veloso Da Divisão de Geografia do CNG


Mato Grosso, Rio Teles Pires, Rio Arinos, Recursos Naturais, Produtos, Borracha


            The author, Prof. Marília Gosling Velloso, presents the results of field observations dealing with the economic activity of rubber exploitation on the northern region of the State of Mato Grosso also known as "Amazonia Matogrossense" and where the Amazonian forest appears under the aspect of large spots or as gallery-forests accompanying the river courses.

            The "seringais" (rural estates where the rubber is explored) are situated on the upper courses of some tributaries (Arinos and São Manuel or Teles Pires rivers) of one of the principal affluents (Tapajós River) of the Amazon, already in a zone of the amazonian basin where savannas predominate, and near the Amazon and Prata divide.

            The author describes the geographical landscape of the zone, making references do the geologic nature of the land, to the principal land forms and to the essential characteristics of the natural vegetation.

            Due to the lack of transportation and to the difficulty of access inherent to the region, the author studied one of the companies which are dedicated to a high standard of rubber exploitation in the region.

            The social and administrative organization of the company is then studied; the techniques used, the problem of available workers, and the supply of foodstuffs to these workers are also examined. The author also studies the local varieties of the rubber-producing tree (hevea) the total production, types of rubber obtained, transport of the production and local industrialization.

            The author states that the Amazonian type of rubber exploring - a characteristic of the dense forests occurring in the Amazon plain - extends itself southwards to the above mentioned zone where savannas predominate, in the north of Mato Grosso, and where the forest is limited to the humid bottoms of the river-valleys. These rivers eroded their valleys on the dry "chapadões" (mesas) which are covered by savannas.

            As a conclusion, the author states that this region is very important considering the rapid development of the rubber industry due to the favorable conditions, to the existence of roads which connect the "seringais" to Cuiabá (capital of the State of Mato Grosso) and the most important factor - to the proximity of the market of São Paulo, a large consumer of the rubber produced in Mato Grosso.

            The author emphasizes the fact that on the north of Mato Grosso does not exists the inconvenience of the rainy season which causes the tapping of rubber trees to stop during 5 months; the exploitation of rubber, contrary to what takes place in the amazonian region, concentrates the population due to the facility of transit through the forest which is less exuberant than the Amazonian forest.

            The author compares, furthermore, the communications on the amazonian region and on the north of Mato Grosso, stating that though the system of transport in this last zone is not satisfactory, is constitutes an important advantage over the use of rivers which are many times interrupted by rapids and where trips take twice as long to complete.

            The author emphasizes the necessity of development of the system of communications so as to guarantee and facilitate the transport of the production of rubber.