Aspectos geográficos do abastecimento do Distrito Federal em gêneros alimentícios de base


  • Myriam Mesquita


: Rio de Janeiro;, Distrito Federal;, Comércio;, Abastecimento de alimentos.


In this paper it is analyzed the problem of supplying the great metropolis, particularly that of Distrito Federal.

            The great metropolis on account of the accelerate growing of its population are obliged to be supplied by distant regions with different climates where the agricultural products are given to the market in different times.

            Concerning the production of nourishing products the economical factors are above the physical ones. These are related to climatic conditions and those can be enumerated as follows of purchase power of the market, to have the preference, feeding industries in the productive sources, stock and transportation.

            The problem of distribution can only be salved by a commercial organization, powerful in the two senses: wholesale merchant and retail merchant.

            The problem of stock is related to the nature of the products. If these can be kept for a long time great deposits well situated what concerns the transportation are needed, that is, proximity of a port, railway or roads. The solution is much more difficult when we think about perishable products being the Central Market used to provide the retailed merchant.

            The increasing development of the population of Cidade do Rio de Janeiro, now with 3 031 000 inhabitants, determines serious problems for the supplying of the city, the principal of them being that of the quantity of food necessary. Other problems appear in relation to the maintenance standards and kinds of maintenance.

            Rio Market is diversified because the constant migrations from other regions and also from foreigners to this City.

            The basic food in the daily diet of the carioca, and the most appreciate of consumers are - meat, milk, butter, lard, "charque", beans, sugar, rice, manioc flour, some vegetables as colewort, table manioc, sweet potato, pumpkin and fruit as bananas and oranges.

            How this food is consummate per capita is difficult to know as statistics on this  subject are very deficient - not being known even which products enter, in Distrito Federal by road.

            The milk and the meat have a more organized commerce so the statistics data can be easily con trolled. The daily average of meat consumption (oxen) if of 4 000 000 kilos and that from milk in nature is of 424 000 I.

            If we calculate the population as 3 000 000 of inhabitants we will have the consumption per capita of 133 gr. of meat and 144 em" of milk.

            The consumption of other products as rice, beans, manioc flour, potato, butter are computed by an apparent estimation, not being included what is transported by truck. So, the daily consumption of rice, in 1957, was of 3 666 k or 133 gr. for each inhab.; that of beans 233 000 k or 77 gr. per capita; that of potatoes 200 000 k or 67 gr.; that of butter 20 000 k or 7 gr. per capita.

            We can observe a tendency for the specialization in certain productive areas of the products which are estimate related to transportation and to distances from the consumer market.

            In the areas nearer the City perishable products are cultivated, taking advantages of climate and relief conditions. The cereals are placed in more distant areas and they can be stocked. This distribution is not yet too clear.

            Two great markets are being constructed in Distrito Federal - one named "Centro de Abastecimento São Sebastião" situated in the confluence of Rio-São Paulo and Rio-Petrópolis roads, with and area of 500 000 m•, divided in four sectors: that of cereals with 173 351 m 2 that of maintenance industries with 193 332 m 2 - that of horticulture with 66 502 m2 that residential for the employees with 42 588 m2.

            The third sector was not approved by the merchants of the "Associação Comercial do  Mercado Municipal"- This intended to construct another marked which will be the second great market and it is situated in Benfica and will occupy an area of 60 000 m2.

            It will provide the population particularly o f vegetables.

            The distribution of the products to the retailed commerce is done through markets, warehouses, green groceries, regional markets, super-markets, open-air markets dairies, butcher shops, and so on included the ambulant market.

            Next the author shows with details how the retailed commerce is done, gives the localization of several commercial shops and makes a relation between the quality of products and the type of shop, the economic level of the purchased class.

            Concluding the author presents suggestions in order to solve the problem of providing the Distrito Federal.