Formas de projeção espacial das cidades na área de influência de Fortaleza


  • Fany Davidovich


Fortaleza - CE, Ceará, Geografia urbana, Crescimento urbano, Cidades e vilas


I - The central motivation of the work was to follow up on the studies relating to the geographic space structure of the country, with the urban activity as starting point. It was then sought to establish zones that connect with level centers under those described in a previous work on Centrality. The restructuring of the zones of influence of the city was, generally speaking, essential, considering that, besides the relationships of the distribution of goods and services used for this study, the relationships that converge upon the urban centers were also considered, in the present case, the afflux of agricultural and vegetable extraction produce.

Just as for the studies on Centrality, the source used was that of the Municipal Inquiries CNG-EPEA of 1966. The handling in conjunction of the centrality and agricultural produce fluxes was justified through several aspects. Although they show a distinct nature and a different rhythm, the relations that develop in a given spatial context interlock and mesh together by virtue of the process that presides over the dynamics of said space.

The role played by the agricultural fluxes in urban action reveals itself especially in the zones of more feeble economy, chiefly characterized by the natural environment and within which these fluxes sometimes show evidence of more significance in the evaluation of the spatial extension to which the cities are connected, than the fluxes resulting from the distribution of goods and services. They can play the role of inducting agents of central functions, inasmuch as the activities of many centers develop around products that are a keynote to the way of life in the area. Sometimes the agricultural fluxes are in harmony with those of centrality. Examples exist where these fluxes are superposed, where centers are distinguished principally by their services activity and others which are distinguished by reason of collection and commercialization of farm products.

The method used. 1. - The nature of the data. This refers to information collected from the "municipios" covering investigation on goods and services in towns located in the area of other "municipios". Inquiry was made into: a) the distribution of manufactured goods through wholesale and retail business firms, specialized and uncommon trade in products for farms: b) the banking service distribution, with special regard to the Bank of Brazil, the distribution of specialized medical services, medium-grade schools; c) the agricultural flux of livelihood and Primary products of plant and animal origin. Questions relating to location of the headquarters of branches operating in the municipal territory were asked, as well as those dealing with the meeting of demand originating from the center and not through search by the "municipios", such as, for example, hospital services and those of the administrative and social organizations connected with agricultural life, apart from its situation as residential quarters of farmers from other "municipios".

2. - Organization of the data. Principal criticism hinges on the impossibility of substantiating with these data an urban comportment permitting the expression of a central power of decision or its role as a delegate for extrinsic decisions, or intermediate situations.

a) A primary process in the substantiation of data, is to distinguish the centers by means of the frequency they are cited by each of the "municipios". For each of these units, tables divided into three parts were drawn up; these show the destination centers of the agricultural fluxes, the centers of demand for services for the economy and for the population. The sum of the frequencies appears in three sub-totals and in the overall total.

But the simple addition of the points would not be enough, by itself alone, to differentiate classes of centers. This count, including as it does, fluxes that possess different ranges of action, would tend to disregard the low category centers, giving relevance only to those of the higher categories.

b) Other aspects have also been considered: the distance and facility of access; the more usually recognized connections between centers and "municipios", such as the purchase of certain goods, banking services, hospitals, and the agricultural fluxes themselves, particularly when the services rendered by the center have proved to be very precarious.

c) The idea of the intensity of the relations between the centers and the "municipios" has been marked by the conditions which are pertinent to a greater or a lesser domination exerted by the centers in connection. Have been noted: 1. Certain conditions of considerable domination which may refer to whole gamut of fluxes or to one or other form of relationship rendered exclusively by the centers: 2. - Conjoined relationships which refer to the combined action of neighboring centers upon the same "municípios"; 3. Diffused relationships, in which the relationships are spread around different centers, which as a result, produce a very diluted urban presence for the centers near these "municipios".

These different conditions can coexist in one single center, which show consequently distinct actions for each "município" with which it has a relation. On their part, the higher category centers may show exclusivity even when it is a matter of common services.

3. - Characterization of the Centers: a) by means of a dimension expressed in notes which proceed from the frequency with which the centers for each 'municipio" are quoted.

These notes correspond to the sum of the three subtotals shown on the flux tables and do not always coincide with the notes given by the functional equipment, according to the centrality work, inasmuch as they refer to the number of "municípios" attained and to the number of relationships of the center. Furthermore, in certain cases, the subtotal of the agricultural fluxes in enhanced, in other instances, that of the services to the economy or to the population. b) Through the conditions of relationships it was possible to differentiate those centers that fit into the framework of the principal forms o f urban projections. These are the ones that submit certain areas to considerable dominance in the distribution of goods and services and for the afflux of farm produce. By virtue of the variations in this gamut, it has been possible to separate three types of centers which show a spatial projection in area, with decreasing intensity bands of the dominance of the principal town.

Are classed among the secondary forms of urban projections those centers that present a lower intensity of relationships in the space. Three categories have been identified: of these the spatial projection has been represented by means of lines of variable width which correspond to the synthesis of the relationships maintained by each "município" with one or several centers.

II - The second part of the work touches on the general features of behavior of the space of the zone of influence of Fortaleza which spreads out fan-like right up to the States of Maranhão and Piauí and the State of Rio Grande do Norte, focusing chiefly on the State of Ceará. It is an area where the economy is based chiefly on cotton exports.

This cultivation confers considerable homogeneity to the occupation of the land and to the urban functions, thanks to the diffusion of the activities related to the commercialization and the transformation of cotton and its derivatives. But on the other hand, cotton is in this space responsible for its unstable characteristics inasmuch as it is dependent on market conditions here and abroad. By reason of its export-based economy, this area can be termed as peripheral to the areas where the final transformation of its produce takes place and as importer of the major part of the manufactured goods that it employs.

As zone of influence of Fortaleza, this space has been elaborated from the standpoint of the position of this city, as the center of convergence of the circulation. It was formed over the spread-out of the highway system which gave it a very extensive range of action but also changeable limits.

This situation as it is now shown, is not yet altogether consolidated. The railway expansion itself came only belatedly to the State of Ceará and in the West Northeast. Strictly speaking, the area which is marked by more intense action by the city of Fortaleza in the State of Ceará is precisely the one that corresponds ta a large extent to the first steps in cotton planting, spreading out from its position as the seat of the administration and of the customs services of the State and as a direct point of exports, independent of Recife.

But the roads that were built helped broaden its range of influence and changes in the urban constellation of the state are becoming visible, whilst at the same time, direct connections with the southern part of the country are being encouraged.

In this region, the standard of the urban behavior of the Capital is that of the primacy of its function as a regional system of drainage over that of the distribution of goods, services and investments. This phenomenon is apparent through its several aspects of concentration in Fortaleza: demographic, economic, financial. The urban clusters in this area are in identification with and also in opposition to the chief city of the region. The identification reveals itself though the activities deployed in the cotton complex and the supply system to the cities of Fortaleza, Teresina and others among the chief towns. The opposition is expressed by the general debility of the functional equipment which is characterized by a considerable retardation in relation to the capital cities. In their urban action, the centers have a certain primacy in the drainage comportment, showing up under the from of limitation, of rarity and of deficiency in urban assistance. They suffer consequently by the constant recovering by the more important centers for their common goods and services. The hierarchical assistance refers centers to products that are not only characterized by their rare degree of consumption. Gauged principally by the supply system of the wholesale and retail sales of the various centers, by the special and rare nature of the trade, this assistance establishes a hierarchy between the different centers with Fortaleza at the head.

The production afflux refers to a slight diversification of raw materials and of livelihood products according to the center. Some products appear in the internal circulation of a zone connected with a center, and others that occur chiefly in external circulation with respect to this zone. The generalization of small volumes of production brought about a demand by the larger towns made to several zones in order to obtain the same product, conferring characteristics of compensation and wide range of action.

III - The third part of the work refers to the spatial projection of Fortaleza on its zone of influence and the forms of urban projection there located.

1. - An area of greater autonomy of the action of Fortaleza is situated in this State, running from the coast to the level of Senador Pompeu, Jaguaribe and Tauá. It is characterized by lesser interference of other towns, principally that of Recife; by the direct relationship, constantly growing, between it and Fortaleza; by the function of the Capital as residence for the large landowners; by the dominance of Fortaleza in the afflux of production and other such features.

Nevertheless, two belts are apparent in this space; the first belonging to the more exclusive domain of the Capital, reaches distances of approximately 150 kilometers to the east and to the west of the Capital and of 130 kilometers to the south and southeast, surrounding the coastline, the zone of the "tabuleiros" mountainous units in the vicinity and certain parts of the "sertão".

The action exerted by Fortaleza does not allow for the birth of new important centers. Only on the extreme limits of this belt there are towns that possess certain influence of action, chiefly of services, but always under the blanket of the Capital of the State of Ceará.

In the second belt of this zone, can be found already certain centers of urban action with larger independence and. with wider diversification of categories by reason of different spatial projection forms. There are therefore centers that possess distributive function and that receive raw materials other than agricultural livelihood produce. Sobral is the principal center of this area, but urban action is generally considered weak in this belt.

On part of this space, Fortaleza acts only on the urban centers, with no deep penetration in their respective zones of influence. But its action tends to become all the time more extensive, to encompass the centers and their respective zones of influence. It begins to disrupt a traditional regional action, such as the one belonging to Sobral. This belt extends for over 400 kilometers from Fortaleza up to Tauá, for over 300 kilometers up to Jaguaribe and for over 200 kilometers up to Senador Pomneu. It contains, chiefly, the central "sertões" of the State as well as the Lower and the Middle-Jaguaribe, besides the Lower-Acaraú, the Ibiapaba and the "sertões" of Crateús, which form the periphery of the zone of Sobral.

2. - Follows a zone where the autonomy of Fortaleza is affected principally; by the more accented competition coming from Recife and Campina Grande; by the greater availability of access to the sources of production; by the diversified destination of the afflux of production.

Regional centers of production have developed, favored by the distance from the Capital: Iguatu, more than 450 kilometers away, Grato-Juazeiro do Norte at over 600 kilometers; by reason of the continued existence of the ancient cattle trail heading to Recife and by the physical conditions particularly favorable to farming, such as the plains of the Jaguaribe and the profusion of valleys, lowlands and hills of the humid Cariri. They correspond to the categories included in the principal forms of urban projection.

There is no great diversification in regard to the other localities that display action in this zone. They are little more than small centers of services that sometimes serve the function of farm-utility merchandise and cotton preparation activities and have consequent ties with the Principal regional centers of this zone.

The occurrence of higher category centers varies among the different areas of this sector of the State. Fortaleza appears predominant in the zone connected to Iguatu, but on the other hand , in the valley of the Salgado, it feels the competition of Campina Grande, whereas at Cariri, the action of Recife is more pronounced.

This zone is chiefly characterized by competition between the role played by the wholesale sector in the supply of goods to the different localities and the part played by the direct deliveries made by manufacturers. The Capital of Ceará exercises chiefly the function of the distribution wholesale of goods and of warehouses, branches of extra-regional firms. The city of Recife intervenes through wholesale operations, through warehousing and branch-offices and by its factories, whereas the Center-Southerns region makes its presence felt chiefly on account of direct sales by manufactures.

3. _ The action of Fortaleza on neighboring States is generally that of the coverage of the capitals and the more important centers occupied with the distribution of goods and services. But it occupies frequently an exclusive position in connection with the afflux of raw materials and the presence of branch offices. Its action is scattered along the principal roads and reaches highest intensity in the Center-North of Piauí. Its weakest action ls felt in Maranhão and Rlo Grande do Norte sectors, apparent by the fragmenting of the relationships between different capitals, the city of Recife and the Center-Southern portion.