Distribuição da população no Estado de Minas Gerais em 1940


  • Eugênia Gonçalves Egler


Minas Gerais, Geografia da População, Demografia, População


            The present article on the distribution of the population of the State of Minas Gerais was elaborated according to the data of the census of 1940.

            In order to facilitate the study of the map, the author divided the State into demog1aphic zones of arbitrary delimitation, according to several physical and economical factors. 1°) The South of Minas and the zone of the Mata which includes the southern part of the State, are the most densely populated. 2°) The North East zone, between the São Francisco Valley and the Doce River. 3 ") The Triangulo Mineiro and finally the zone of Urucuia

            Ever since the beginning a great contrast arises between the South and the North of the State, where the distribution of the population is unequal having sometimes completely underpopulated zones

            The Southern zone is economically and industrially mole advanced and it concentrates more than 50% of the total population of the State There we have the two outstanding demographic zones: The Southern zone of Minas Gerais and the Zone of the Mata They ale separated from each other by an underpopulated belt corresponding to the higher planes of Grande River.

            Further on, the author tries to make a study of the several factors which regulate the demographic aspect of those zones. Those factors me: Transportation facilities, small distance to the centers of consumption and the existence of fertile land.

            The author examines the region between the high valley of the Doce River and the Espírito Santo State which from the population point of view and its distribution, a continuation of the above studied zone; though there are some differences of physical and economical nature

            The author points out the Northeast region which is located between the East of São Francisco River and the north of the Doce River including the basin of the Jequitinhonha River. This region is of middle demographic density and its population is unequally distributed. This region is completely dislocated from the principal channels of communication. The influence exercised by the principal hydographic basins is its distinguished feature. Based upon this principle the author studies the population of each basin in itself. First he makes a general outlook study of the population of the São Francisco Valley trying to link them to the economical and physical conditions of this region.

            The, author tries to point out the importance of Montes Claros City as a center of the

economical and industrial life of that region.

            Further on, the author studies the Valley of Jequitinhonha, which is different from the valley of São Francisco, not only because of the activities exercised in its area, but the manner of its conquest as well. While the São Francisco Valley was populated due to the cattle and agriculture the Jequitinhonha Valley was wiped out due to the diamond and gold mining which took place in this region.

            Then follows the study of the Mucuri Valley which played an important role as a channel of penetration and communication of the region.

            Further on the author makes some demographic and economical comparison of the region called Triângulo Mineiro He shows that the vast areas are underpopulated while the valleys are more densely populated, and the principal activity is agriculture.

            Finally he comes to the area of the greatest demographic rarefaction which is the Urucuia Region, on account of its poor natural resources and the lack of communications.

            Concluding the author stresses the point that the great difference between the half part in the North and the other half in the South is simply resumed in the geographic position in connection with the communications and the markets, differences of geological and topographical sort o f the soils and also the influences of historical causes.