Métodos gráficos e matemáticos para localização de indústrias através de minimização de custos de transportes e adequação à realidade com introdução de novos fatores utilizando um método para avaliação numérica de uma comunidade


  • Maria de Lourdes de Oliveira


Localização das indústrias, Transportes, Geografia econômica, Métodos gráficos, Modelos matemáticos


To research the optimum region for industrial location, having in view the infinite factors which influence it is the main purpose of this paper.

The analysis of the problem was guided by an economic model, in which were considered the characteristics of the industrial products and the minimization of transportation costs.

Considering the major significance of the transportation factor, graphic and mathematical methods were suggested to determine the macro-location.

The isolines and the construction of isodapanes, graphic method of the funicular polygon, as a mechanic solution based on the graphs theory, were pointed out. Applied to the problems solution, this theory makes possible easier adjustment to reality.

We follow in this study the theoretic-economic principles of Prof. Ruy Aguiar da Silva Leme, defining some appropriate modes, especially in the graphs theory - mechanic solution.

Also presented was an analysis of the solution given by the Location Problem, in accordance with theory to reality including new important factors in the Location Theory.

The study was guided by an indispensable test of evaluation of the potentialities and possibilities of a community to verify the perfect integration among the influential process factors.

It was indicated a method to evaluate a community that could define the degree of acceptance, for the location of an industry.

Based upon studies conducted by the Companhia Paulista de Força e Luz, this method provides elements to a rational choice hampering mismatches and failures of the project. Finally, it was stressed the influence of the human behavior factor.

The evaluation of "imponderable factors" is a very difficult task, due to its subjective character, but partiality can be avoided by adopting rational methods of judgment and expertness in data collection.

The optimum location of an industry will emerge by the application of human and technical criteria, aiming at a situation, in the long run, with possibilities of an increasing development.